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Physicals principles

As is the case for electromagnetic waves, the different sound waves are subdivided into bands :


Frequency Bands        Designations
Below 20 Hz
20 Hz to 20 kHz

20 kHz to 10 GHz
20 kHz to 100 kHz
1 MHz to 15 Mhz
1 MHz to 15 MHz
above 10 GHz


Audible sounds


Industrial processes

Medical diagnosis and therapy

Metal testing


Considering the wave lengths of the different bands through use of the following :


Wave length (m) = Sound wave celerity c (m/s)
                                           frequency  f (Hz)


For c = 340m/s (air). The following results ate obtained :

Frequency Wave length
20 Hz
1000 Hz
20 kHz
1 MHz
1 GHz









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Ultrasonic welding system

Ultrasounds are mechanical vibrations similar to those produced by any musical instrument. These vibrations are termed ultrasounds because their frequency exceeds the auditory capacities of the human ear (higher than 16 kHz). The pressure waves are produced by a generator.


graphique.gifThe generator sends an alternating current of the same frequency as the converter (or transducer), which consists in piezoelectric ceramics transforming them into mechanical vibrations. In ultrasounds, tension is sent onto the ceramic, which “lengthens” or “shortens” in accordance with the polarity of the tension. Once the vibration has been produced, it is subsequently amplified and transmitted by the sonotrodes to the pieces to be welded.

The generator converts the electric frequency of the network (50/60 Hz) into high-frequency electric energy corresponding in the schema to 20000 Hz.


The piezoelectric converter (or transducer) transforms the electrical 20 000 Hz into mechanical vibrations of the same frequency; the energy then becomes mechanical.


The booster, or amplitude modifier, heightens or reduces the amplitude produced by the converter.

Final element of the acoustic chain, the sonotrode transits the ultrasonic energy to the piece to be welded or cut.

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